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Water Quality Issues and Solutions in Keystone, Florida

Keystone, Florida is a beautiful city located north of Tampa, known for its natural springs and outdoor recreational activities. However, Keystone residents face some unique challenges when it comes to water quality, both from municipal water sources and private wells tapping the Floridan Aquifer. In this article, we’ll explore the most common water contaminants found in Keystone, their health effects, and effective treatment solutions for cleaner, safer drinking water.

Overview of Keystone, Florida

Keystone is an unincorporated suburban community in Hillsborough County, Florida. Nestled among cypress swamps and oak hammocks, it’s a nature lover’s paradise. Popular outdoor activities include hiking, biking, fishing, boating, and swimming in the many freshwater springs.

The population of Keystone is approximately 24,000 residents. Most households rely on municipal water supplies from Tampa Bay Water, while some use private wells tapping the Floridan Aquifer.

Keystone’s natural environment poses some unique water quality challenges. The sandy soils allow contaminants to easily leach into groundwater. And the abundant springs, lakes, and wetlands provide a direct conduit for surface pollutants to enter the water supply.

Common Municipal Water Contaminants in Keystone

Tampa Bay Water supplies most of Keystone’s municipal water. This water is treated at regional surface water treatment plants, disinfected, and piped to homes and businesses.

While this water meets EPA safety standards, potential contaminants can still be a concern for vulnerable populations like children, pregnant women, and those with compromised immune systems.

Some of the most common municipal water contaminants found in Keystone include:

Disinfection Byproducts

Chlorine and other disinfectants react with organic matter to form potentially harmful byproducts like trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and bromate. Long-term exposure is linked to increased cancer risk.


Corrosive water can leach lead from old pipes and fixtures. Lead is a neurotoxin, especially harmful to children’s developing brains and nervous systems.

Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs)

PFCs like PFOA and PFOS from industrial sources contaminate many public water supplies. They are slow to break down and can accumulate in the body, potentially causing developmental, immune, and hormonal issues.


Traces of prescription drugs, hormones, and personal care products enter wastewater and can persist through treatment plants. The health effects of chronic low-level exposure are still under study.


Runoff from fertilizers and animal waste can contaminate drinking water sources with nitrates and nitrites. These can reduce blood’s oxygen carrying capacity in infants.


Arsenic is a natural contaminant found in some groundwater sources. Long-term exposure is linked to skin lesions, cardiovascular disease, and cancers.


Road salt runoff leads to elevated chloride levels, which can impart a salty taste and corrode pipes. People with hypertension and cardiovascular disease need to watch their sodium intake.

Common Well Water Contaminants in Keystone

Residents relying on private wells can face additional water quality problems, as these wells tap directly into the Floridan Aquifer with no municipal treatment.

Some of the most widespread well water contaminants in Keystone include:

Hydrogen Sulfide

This gas causes that “rotten egg” odor and blackening/corrosion of pipes and fixtures. At high levels it can damage the nervous system. Common in Florida well water.


Excess iron causes rusty colored water, staining, metallic taste, and buildup in pipes. Can promote bacterial growth. Very common in the Floridan Aquifer.


Like iron, manganese can stain laundry, sinks, and fixtures black. At elevated levels, it impacts the nervous system.

Sulfur Bacteria

These nuisance bacteria use hydrogen sulfide as an energy source, leaving black greasy buildup, clogged pipes, and rotten egg smell.

Coliform Bacteria

Fecal coliform bacteria indicates potential contamination with disease-causing pathogens from animal/human waste. Requires disinfection.


Septic systems, fertilizers, and animal waste can leach nitrates/nitrites into well water, posing health risks if consumed in high quantities.


Corrosive well water dissolves lead and copper from submersible well pumps, piping, or fixtures, contaminating household water.


Arsenic occurs naturally in some deeper Floridan Aquifer wells, requiring treatment to remove this carcinogenic heavy metal.


A radioactive gas that can dissolve easily in well water drawn from deep rock formations like the Floridan Aquifer underlying Keystone. Can cause lung cancer with long-term exposure.

Hardness Minerals

Abundant calcium and magnesium makes Keystone well water very “hard.” This causes scale buildup, dry skin, detergent issues.

Top Water Treatment Solutions for Keystone Homes

To address these potential contaminants in municipal and well water, Keystone homeowners have several effective treatment options:

Reverse Osmosis (RO) Systems

AquaRevive RO systems use a multi-stage filtration process to remove a wide variety of contaminants from water through a semi-permeable membrane. This includes lead, arsenic, chloride, nitrates, bacteria, pharmaceuticals, perchlorate, and more. It also reduces hardness and TDS. RO-filtered water at the kitchen sink improves drinking water safety and taste.

Whole House Filters

For comprehensive water treatment, AquaBlue whole house filtration systems protect all your household water. Multi-media tanks filled with activated carbon + resin beads remove chlorine, particulates, lead, perchlorate, some pesticides/herbicides, and more. Whole house systems also prolong equipment life.

UV Disinfection

AquaGuard UV systems provide chemical-free disinfection against viruses, bacteria, and pathogens in both municipal and well water. Especially critical for compromised immune systems. UV light damages their DNA so they can’t reproduce. Provides protection at the point of use.

Ozone Injection

For hydrogen sulfide odor and well contamination with iron bacteria or other microorganisms, HydroClear ozone injection systems destroy them on contact. Ozone also controls scale and biofouling in pipes.

Water Softeners

AquaLux water softeners remove hardness minerals from both city and well water via ion exchange. This protects pipes and fixtures from scale buildup and eliminates issues with spotting, filming, and poor soap lather. Improves the feel of water for washing and bathing.

Sediment Filters

Multi-media sediment filters like the HydroTorque FX remove rust, sand, silt, dirt and other particles that impact the taste and appearance of well water. They prolong the life of additional treatment systems.

Acid Neutralizers

AquaWise acid neutralizing filters raise the pH of acidic well water that causes corrosion of pipes, fixtures, and pumps. They dissolve solid minerals and prevent metal leaching.

Carbon Filtration

AquaCarbonGuard carbon tank filters adsorb volatile organic compounds, pesticides, herbicides, chlorine, and residual hydrogen sulfide from well water. Protects health and improves taste/odor.

Retention Tanks

Retention tanks allow chlorine to thoroughly mix with water and properly disinfect the supply. Often required by code with chlorine injection treatment for private wells.

Commercial Water Treatment

For small businesses, restaurants, offices, strip malls, and apartment buildings, HydroTech Pro central water treatment systems meet the unique needs of commercial properties in Keystone.

With tailored solutions from Aqua-Wise, Keystone residents can enjoy cleaner, safer water from every tap in their homes, protecting themselves from the most common municipal and well water contaminants in this region.


We hope this overview gives Keystone homeowners and businesses a better understanding of potential contaminants in local water supplies, and available treatment options to address issues like lead, bacteria, hydrogen sulfide, hardness, and more. Clean water is too important to guess about. Aqua-Wise offers a free water test and consultation to identify your real-world water quality issues and the right solutions for your needs and budget. Contact us today at (727) 236-7161 to learn more and take advantage of special discounts. We service all of Tampa Bay with NSF-certified systems and expert local technicians. Get on track for cleaner water today.

Filtrated Soft Water Solves Many Problems

Hard water can cause a wide range of problems that affect various aspects of daily life and household functions. Here is a comprehensive list of the issues that hard water can cause:

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